First baby rattlesnakes of the season at EYNC

We have kids!

Just a quick post to let you know that as of last Saturday, 3 September, Females 39, 53 and 75 were all still visibly pregnant.

Females 39 (red/blue) and 53 (blue/yellow) laying together in their gestation shelter on Saturday, 3 September, illuminated by sunluight reflected from a mirror. Both were still pregnant. They are laying on top of a recently shed skin from another large rattlesnake.
Females 39 (red/blue) and 53 (blue/yellow) laying together in their gestation shelter on Saturday, 3 September, illuminated by sunlight reflected from a mirror. Both were still pregnant. They are laying on top of a recently shed skin from another large rattlesnake.

 

But yesterday afternoon, 6 September, a newborn baby was coiled in the hollow log where 39 and 53 had been on Saturday. I could not see the adults well enough to tell which one had given birth. There were undoubtedly other kids that were not visible. Since the neonates start a shed (ecdysis) cycle almost immediately after birth, which turns their eyes bluish-white, this one’s clear eyes indicate he is not very old.

A newborn northern Pacific rattlesnake in the hollow log with females 39 and 53 on 6 September. His eyes are still clear, indicating he is no more than a day or two old.
A newborn northern Pacific rattlesnake in the hollow log with females 39 and 53 on 6 September. His eyes are still clear, indicating he is no more than a day or two old.

 

As of Saturday, I could not see neonates in the burrow with Female 75.

Since my last post, I also came across the first Fall courtship. Early on 29 August, I came across an unmarked male courting Female 66, who is not pregnant this year and has been hunting all summer. A couple hours later, the apparently happy pair were copulating! Remember, these rattlesnakes have a bimodal courtship season: they court in the Spring, lay low during the hot months, and resume courtship in late Summer/Fall.

Female 66 is almost hidden by an unmarked male courting her on 29 August 2016
Female 66 is almost hidden by an unmarked male on top of her on 29 August 2016. Note his tail wrapped around and under hers.
Female 66 copulating with an unmarked male on 29 August 2016
The same pair copulating two hours after the photo above was made. The marked and telemetered female has white paint in the top half of her rattle; the male’s rattle is not marked with paint.

29 March: Lots of courting pairs and a vole goes down!

We now have a total of 14 rattlesnakes marked at Effie Yeaw Nature Center, including 9 males and 5 females. This spring, I have processed, marked, and released 3 males and 2 females without transmitters (mostly too small for the transmitters). With prematurely failed transmitters in Males 36 and 37, we currently have working transmitters in 4 males (35, 38, 40 & 46) and 3 females (39, 41 & 47).

You almost need a scorecard to keep track of who has been with who over the past couple of weeks. Lots of the action has occurred at a small hollow log where Female 41 spent the last month or so of her winter slumber by herself. She departed on 13/14 March and just five days later Female 47 turned up there with Males 38 and 46. The three snakes were coiled next to and touching each other on 19 March in a narrow bit of shade. The late morning sun was hot and all three body temperatures were elevated (female = 86F and males = 91F & 93F), indicating they had recently been in the sun. The female disappeared into the log when I approached but the males were more concerned about each other than me. The smaller male, 46, was still excited and head-jerking (a common part of rattlesnake courtship) a little bit. Each time he would touch Male 38, the larger male would shove him away, pushing violently by thrusting a coil sideways. Male 46 would push back, reminding me of two brothers in the back seat on a long car ride. I suspect I may have missed some male combat earlier, which was probably cut short as their body temperatures approached dangerous levels and they were forced to get out of the sun. (Click here to see a video of male combat, shot in front of the EYNC Visitor Center in 2010)

Also on 19 March, Female 41 was found (by herself, as far as I could tell) in the refuge where Female 39 delivered her kids last year.

On 21 March, Female 47 and Male 38 were were still at the small hollow log, although laying a few inches apart and not actively courting when I was there. Male 46 was by himself several dozen meters away in the grass. At 674 mm (26.5 inches) snout-vent length, Male 46 was no match for Male 38, who measured 821 mm  (32.3 inches) SVL at his recent transmitter replacement surgery. As you can see from the video mentioned above, male combat is a wrestling match and larger body size is a definite advantage. Snout-vent length or SVL is the common way biologists record body length in lizards and snakes; the tail is usually measured separately.

On 21 March, Female 41 had left the birthing refuge used by 39 last year and was coiled by herself under a pile of dry live oak branches. The following day, she had been joined by Male 46 and the two were copulating at about 11:20 AM. In the photo (below), Male 46’s rattle colors are green/red and Female 41’s are white/blue, although the blue is difficult to see through the brush.IMG_5745

Also on 22 March, Female 47 was still at the small hollow log but Male 38 had been replaced by Male 49, who was actively head-jerking, chin-rubbing, and tongue-flicking the female. Male 49 is not telemetered (but recognizable by white/green paint in his rattle) and at 767 mm SVL, he is not quite as long as Male 38, but he outweighs Male 38 by 28 grams (377 g vs. 349 g), Of course, I have no way of knowing if 38 and 49 even crossed paths; Male 38 could have departed before Male 49 arrived.

On 23 March, Female 41 had moved back to the birthing refuge used by Female 39 last year and had apparently been followed by Male 46; they were still together there on 24 March, although they were basking about 4 feet apart when I visited on both dates.

Female 47 was laying partly in the sun on the morning of 23 March with Male 49 nowhere in sight. Of course, without a transmitter, I had no way to find him. But they were laying together in the same place again on the next two mornings, so I suspect he was there on the 23rd, just not visible.

Female 41 remained at 39’s old birthing refuge on 25 and 26 March. Male 46 was still there on the 25th but they had been joined by Male 38. On this day, Female 41 and Male 46 were again basking apart from each other and male 38 was out of sight, betrayed only by his radio signal. The next day, 26 March, the female was basking, Male 38 was there but out of sight, and Male 46 was alone in a poison oak thicket some distance away.

By 27 March, Female 47 had left the small hollow log where she had been for nine days (with 3 males at various times) but she had been replaced by Female 41, leaving Male 38 apparently alone where he had been with Female 41 for the previous couple of days. As far as I could tell, Female 41 was also alone.

Also on the 27th, Male 35 was found a few minutes after 11 AM eating a California vole (aka meadow mouse, Microtus californicus) in thick knee-high grass next to the main trail, not far from the picnic area. The snake stopped swallowing and we were lucky that he did not spit out the rodent when he was disturbed, as rattlesnakes are quite defenseless with their mouth stretched around a meal. George Nyberg and I had to remain motionless for many minutes before the snake finally decided it was safe to continue swallowing. We shot a few photos as he finished his vole.

CROR35 eating vole 27Mar15A  CROR35 eating vole 27Mar15B

On the 28th, all of the telemetered snakes were coiled in vegetation, alone, and apparently hunting. Both places where most of the courtship had occurred over the past two weeks were empty. Are they finished courting? I doubt it; it’s not even April yet!

Copulation & a malformed rattle

Just a quick entry regarding two very interesting recent observations:

First, just in case you were wondering what rattlesnakes do when they first warm up after a long winter’s nap… I came across this copulating pair early this afternoon. What you see in the photo (below) is almost all I could see. Most of their bodies were hidden in the deep grass. The elevated tail is the female’s and the male’s tail is wrapped under her cloaca. You’ll notice that neither rattle contains any paint; they were (and remain) unmarked snakes. I didn’t disturb them!Copulation 18Mar15

Also, the most recent animal to be processed and released at EYNC was a small (554 mm/22 inch) female with a deformed rattle (below). These are pretty rare. It looks like a congenital deformity rather than being the result of trauma. One additional segment clings to the terminal one and the snake can make a little buzz but I am sure she is incapable of accumulating a string of segments. The lesson here is that even in the rare event of a deformity or amputation, no rattlesnake has a long tapered tail like California’s harmless snakes.Rattle_CROR50 18Mar15